Reading: How does rabies cause aggression?
share on PinterestResearchers investigate the underlying mechanism of rabies, and why it makes hosts infected with it aggressive. The rabies virus attacks the central nervous system of the host, and in humans, it can cause a range of debilitating symptoms — including states of anxiety and confusion, partial paralysis, agitation, hallucinations, and, in its final phases, a symptom called “ hydrophobia, ” or a concern of water system. Hydrophobia causes the affect individual to panic at the sight of water and deny to drink. These dangerous symptoms are normally followed by death. Though rabies is preventable through inoculation, poorer populations in Africa and Asia often do not have the necessary resources to keep this virus at alcove. In fact, the World Health Organization ( WHO ) say that cases of rabies in those continents account for 95 percentage of global deaths due to this disease. Although rabies has been studied intently since around the early nineteenth hundred, the mechanisms by which this virus “ hijacks ” the brain and much plunges the infect host into a submit of frenzied aggression have been largely indecipherable. now, a team of researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks have revealed how the virus acts at a molecular floor to modify the host ’ randomness behavior. “ many infectious agents change behavior in their host, but we do not understand how they do this, ” explains lead study writer Dr. Karsten Hueffer. “ Our study provides, for the first time, a detail molecular mechanism for how an infectious agent induces particular behaviors. ” Dr. Hueffer and colleagues published the results of their research in the daybook Scientific Reports.
Virus interacts with muscle receptors
The scientists explain that one reason why rabies is sol scheme is that, although it has a relatively simple familial makeup, it can shell jolt animals with infinitely more building complex systems, such as dogs. Dr. Hueffer explains that the “ rabies virus merely has five genes and very little data. Dogs have more than 20,000 genes with sophisticated immune and central nervous systems. ”
“ Yet this virus can reprogram a cad ’ s behavior so it loses concern, becomes aggressive and bites, which allows the virus to spread through the frank ’ mho saliva. ” Dr. Karsten Hueffer
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however, he besides points out that “ the behavior is easier to study than the virus itself, ” because rabies alone affects the mind in insidious ways. In their cogitation, the researchers besides looked at previous findings from the 1980s and 1990s, which show how molecules of this virus constipate to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors — or proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine — thus impacting muscle manipulate. That research showed how glycoprotein molecules of the virus bind to acetylcholine receptor molecules, which, in addition to influencing the signaling pathway that dictates muscle control, means that they can also replicate and infect the brain. More holocene research besides demonstrated that the glycoprotein molecule in rabies contains a sequence of amino acids that is very like to an amino acid succession found in snake venom. These amino acids act as inhibitors to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Rabies ‘inhibits receptors in the brain’
Dr. Hueffer and colleague Dr. Marvin Schulte — who specializes in nicotine receptors — connected the dots between these existing findings, and they saw that the properties of amino acids in rabies glycoprotein might be key in influencing the host ’ randomness frenzied behavior following infection with the virus. “ We knew that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which bind to the virus in muscles, are besides found in the mind, and we presumed that [ the ] virus could besides bind to such receptors, ” says Dr. Hueffer. “If snake venom has a similar structure to parts of the virus, and inhibits these receptors,” he continues, “we thought maybe the virus could also inhibit these receptors in the brain. Furthermore, we thought that this interaction could influence behavior.” After this possible connection was noted, Dr. Hueffer and another colleague, called Dr. Michael Harris, conducted a series of experiments on mice in order to test their hypothesis. “ The viruses collect in the spaces between brain cells during the early stages of infection. These spaces are where brain cells communicate, ” Dr. Harris explains. “ We thought, ” he adds, “ that if viruses could bind to receptors in these spaces and change how genius cells normally communicate, the virus could change demeanor [ in ] the infect animal. ”
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One of the tests involved injecting rabies glycoprotein into the mouse ’ s brains, to see what effect this would have. The researchers noticed that, after the injection, the animals became significantly more agitate. As Dr. Harris explains, “ When we injected this small piece of the virus glycoprotein into the brain of shiner, the mouse started running around much more than shiner that got a control injection. Such a behavior can be seen in rabies-infected animals as well. ” According to Dr. Hueffer and his team, this is the first time that experimental evidence has been presented to show how rabies interacts with other cells in the nervous system to induce an altered behavior that determines infected hosts to help spread the virus.